×

Error

Articles Anywhere cannot function. Regular Labs Library plugin is not installed.

Modals cannot function. Regular Labs Library plugin is not installed.

Modules Anywhere cannot function. Regular Labs Library plugin is not installed.

ReReplacer cannot function. Regular Labs Library plugin is not installed.

Children's Entertainment

Article Index

LITERATURE CITED

 

American Psychological Association. (1993). Violence & Youth: Psychology's Response. Volume I: Summary Report of the American Psychological Association Commission on Violence and Youth. Washington. D.C.: American Psychological Association

American Psychological Association. (1985). Violence on television. Washington, DC: APA Board of Social and Ethical Responsibility for Psychology.

Andreasen, M.S. (1990). Evolution in the family's use of television: Normative data from industry and academe. In J. Bryant (Ed.), Television and the American family (pp. 3-55). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Atkin, C.K. (1983). Effects of realistic TV violence vs. fictional violence on aggression. Journalism Quarterly, 60, 615-621.

Atkin, C.K., Greenberg, B.S., Korzenny, F., & McDermott, S. (1979). Selective exposure to televised violence. Journal of Broadcasting, 23 (1), 5-13.

Baker, R.K. & Ball, S.J. (1969). Mass media and violence: A staff report to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S.H. (1963). Imitation of film-mediated aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66 (1), 3-11.

Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S.H. (1961). Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63 (3), 575-582.

Barry, D.S. (1993). Screen violence and America's children. The Journal of the Writers Guild of America, West, December/January, 16-19.

Belson, W. (1978). Television Violence and the Adolescent Boy. Franborough: Teakfield.

Berkowitz, L. (1962). Aggression: A social psychological analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Berkowitz, L. (1984). Some effects of thoughts on anti- and prosocial influences of media events: A cognitive- neoassociation analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 110-427.

Berkowitz, L., Corwin, R. & Heironimus, M. (1963). Film violence and subsequent aggressive tendencies. Public Opinion Quarterly, 27, 217-229.

Berkowitz, L., & Rawlings, E. (1963). Effects of film violence on inhibitions against subsequent aggression. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66 (5), 405-412.

Bryant, J. (Ed.). (1990). Television and the American Family. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Centerwall, B.S. (1992). Television and violence: The scale of the problem and where to go from here. Journal of the American Medical Association, 267 (22), 3059-3063.

Comstock, G. & Paik, H. (1991). Television and the American child. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Condry, J.C. (1989). The psychology of television. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cook, T.D., Kendzierski, D.A., & Thomas, S.A. (1983). The implicit assumptions of television research: An analysis of the 1982 NIMH report on "Television and Behaviour." Public Opinion Quarterly, 47(2), 161-201.

Donnerstein, E. & Berkowitz, L. (1981). Victim reactions in aggressive erotic films as a factor in violence against women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, Њ 710-724.

Donnerstein, E., Linz, D., & Penrod, S. (1987). The question of pornography: Research findings and policy implications. New York: Free Press.

Donnerstein, E., Slaby, R., & Eron, L. (1992). Television and film violence. In American Psychological Association, Draft report of the Commission on Violence and Youth. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Ekman, P., Liebert, R.M., Friesen, W., Harrison, R., Zlatchin, C., Malmstrom, E.V., & Baron, R.A. (1972). Facial expressions of emotion as predictors of subsequent aggression. In G.A. Comstock, E.A. Rubinstein, & J.P. Murray (eds.) Television and Social Behaviour, vol. 5, Television's Effects: Further Explorations. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

Ellis, G.T. & Sekyra, F. (1972). The effect of aggressive cartoons on behaviour of first grade children. Journal of Psychology, 81, 37-43.

Eron, L. (1963). Relationship of TV viewing habits and aggressive behaviour in children. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67, 193-196.

Eron, L. (1982). Parent child interaction, television violence and aggression of children. American Psychologist, 27, 197-211.

Eron, L. (1992). The impact of televised violence. Testimony on behalf of the American Psychological Association before the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, June 18, 1992.

Federman, J. (1993). Film and Television Ratings: An International Assessment. Studio City, CA: Mediascope.

Freedman, J.L. (1984). Effect of television violence on aggressiveness. Psychological Bulletin, 96(2), 227-246.

Freedman, J.L. (1986). Television violence and aggression: A rejoinder. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 372-278.

Friedrich-Cofer, L. & Huston, A.C. (1986). Television violence and aggression: The debate continues. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 364-371.

Geen, R.G. & Stonner, D. (1972). Context effects in observed violence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 25, 145-150.

Gerbner, G. (1972). Violence in television drama: Trends and symbolic functions. In G.A. Comstock & E.A. Rubenstein (eds.) Television and Social Behaviour, vol. 1, Media Content and Control, Washington: United States Government Printing Office.

Gerbner, G. & Gross, L. (1974). Violence profile No. 6: Trends in network television drama and viewer conceptions of social reality 1967-1973. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia: Manuscript.

Gerbner, G. & Gross, L. (1976a). Living with television: The violence profile. Journal of Communication, 26, 173-99.

Gerbner, G. & Gross, L. (1976b). The scary world of TV's heavy viewer. Psychology Today, April, pp. 41- 45, 89.

Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Eleey, M.F., Jackson-Beeck, M., Jeffries-Fox, S., & Signorielli, N. (1977). TV violence profile No. 8: The highlights. Journal of Communication, 27, 171-180.

Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Eleey, M.F., Jackson-Beeck, M., Jeffries-Fox, S., & Signorielli, N. (1978). Cultural indicators: Violence profile No. 9. Journal of Communication, 28, 176-207.

Gerbner, G. & Signorielli, N. (1990). Violence profile, 1967 through 1988-89: Enduring patterns. Manuscript, University of Pennsylvania, Annenberg School of Communications.

Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1982). The child and television drama: The psychosocial impact of cumulative viewing. New York: Mental Health Materials Centre.

Hapkiewitz, W.G. & Roden, A.H. (1971). The effect of aggressive cartoons on children's interpersonal play. Child Development, 42, 1583-1585.

Hearold, S. (1986). A synthesis of 1043 effects of television on social behaviour. In G. Comstock (ed.) Public communication and behaviour (vol. 1), 65-133. New York: Academic Press.

Huesmann, L.R. & Eron, L.D. (Eds.). (1986). Television and the aggressive child: A cross-national comparison. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Huesmann, L.R., Eron, L.D., Lefkowitz, M.M., & Walder, L.O. (1984). Stability of aggression over time and generations. Developmental Psychology, 20, 1120-1134.

Huesmann, L.R., Langerspetz, K., & Eron, L.D. (1984). Intervening variables in the television violence- viewing-aggression relation: Evidence from two countries. Developmental Psychology, 20, 746-775.

Huston, A.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H., Feshbach, N.D., Katz, P.A., Murray, J.P., Rubinstein, E.A., Wilcox, B., & Zuckerman, D. (1992). Big world, small screen: The role of television in American society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Huston, A.C., Watkins, B.A., & Kunkel, D. (1989). Public policy and children's television. American Psychologist, 44(2), 424-433.

Joy, L.A., Kimball, M., & Zabrack, M.L. (1986). Television exposure and children's aggressive behaviour. In T.M. Williams (ed.) The impact of Television: A Natural Experiment Involving Three Towns. New York: Academic Press.

Katz, E. Blumler, J.G., & Gurevitch, M. (1974). Uses and gratifications research. Public Opinion Quarterly, 37, 509-523.

Kippax, S., & Murray, J.P. (1980). Using the mass media: Need gratification and perceived utility. Communication Research, 7(3), 335-360.

Kubey, R. & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Television and the quality of life: How viewing shapes everyday life. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kunkel, D., & Murray, J.P. (1991). Television, children, and social policy: Issues and resources for child advocates. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 20(1), 88-93.

Kunkel, D., & Watkins, B.A. (1987). Evolution of children's television regulatory policy. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 31, 367-389.

Lazarsfeld, P.F. (1955). Why is so little known about the effects of television and what can be done? Public Opinion Quarterly, 19, 243-251.

Lefcourt, H.M., Barnes, K., Parke, R., & Schwartz, F. (1966). Anticipated social censure and aggression- conflict as mediators of response to aggression induction. Journal of Social Psychology, 70, 251-263.

Lefkowitz, M., Eron, L., Walder, L., & Huesmann, L.R. (1972). Television violence and child aggression: A follow up study. In G.A. Comstock & E.A. Rubinstein (eds.) Television and Social Behaviour, vol. 3. Television and Adolescent Aggressiveness. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

Levin, H.J. (1980). Fact and fancy in television regulation: An economic study of policy alternatives. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Lichter, R.S. & Amundson, D. (1992). A day of television violence. Washington, DC: Centre for Media and Public Affairs.

Lieberman Research (1975). Children's reactions to violent material on television--report to the American Broadcasting Company. New York: Lieberman Research.

Liebert, R.M. & Baron, R.A. (1972). Short term effects of television aggression on children's aggressive behaviour. In J.P. Murray E.A. Rubinstein, & G.A. Comstock (eds.) Television and Social Behaviour, vol. 2, Television and Social Learning. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

Liebert, R.M. & Sprafkin, J. (1988). The early window: Effects of television on children and youth (3rd ed.). New York: Pergamon.

Lovaas, O.I. (1961). Effect of exposure to symbolic aggression on aggressive behaviour. Child Development, 32, 37-44.

Maccoby, E.E. (1954). Why do children watch television? Public Opinion Quarterly, 18, 239-244.

McGuire, W.J. (1986). The myth of massive media impact: Savagings and salvagings. In G. Comstock (ed.) Public communication and behaviour. Vol. 1, 173-257. New York: Academic Press.

Milavsky, J.R., Kessler, R.C., Stipp, H.H., & Rubens, W.S. (1992). Television and aggression: A panel study. New York: Academic Press.

Murray, J.P. (1973). Television and violence: Implications of the Surgeon General's research program. American Psychologist, 28(6), 472-478.

Murray, J.P. (1980). Television and youth: 25 years of research and controversy. Boys Town, NE: The Boys Town Centre for the Study of Youth Development.

Murray, J.P., & Kippax, S. (1979). From the early window to the late night show: International trends in the study of television's impact on children and adults. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 12, pp.253- 320). New York: Academic Press.

Mussen, P. & Rutherford, E. (1961). Effects of aggressive cartoons on children's aggressive play. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62 (2), 461-464.

National Institute of Mental Health (1982). Television and behaviour: Ten years of scientific progress and implications for the eighties (vol. 1), Summary report. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

National Research Council. (1993). Understanding and preventing violence. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Nielsen, A.C. and Company (1988). The 1988 Nielsen Report on Television. Northbrook, IL: A.C. Nielsen Company.

Paik, H. & Comstock, G. (1994). The effects of television violence on antisocial behaviour: A meta-analysis. Communication Research, 21 (4), 516-546.

Palmer, E.L. (1988). Television and America's children: A crisis of neglect. New York: Oxford University Press.

Parke, R.D., Berkowitz, L., Leyens, J.P., West, S. & Sebastian, R.J. (1977). Some effects of violent and non-violent movies on the behaviour of juvenile delinquents. In L. Berkowitz (ed.) Advances in Experimental Psychology, 10. New York: Academic Press.

Pearl, D., Bouthilet, L., & Lazar, J. (Eds.). (1982). Television and behaviour: Ten years of scientific progress and implications for the eighties (vol. 2), Technical reviews. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

Phillips, D.P. (1983). The impact of mass media violence on U.S. homicides. American Sociological Review, 48, 560-568.

Robinson, J.P. & Bachman, J.G. (1972). Television viewing habits and aggression. In G.A. Comstock & E.A. Rubinstein (eds.) Television and Social Behaviour, vol. 3, Television and Adolescent Aggressiveness. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

Rosekrans, M.A. (1967). Imitation in children as a function of perceived similarities to a social model of vicarious reinforcement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7(3), 305-317.

Ross, L.B. (1982). The effect of aggressive cartoons on the group play of children. Miami University: Doctoral dissertation.

Sheehan, P.W. (1983). Age trends and the correlates of children's television viewing. Australian Journal of Psychology, 35, 417-431.

Stein, A.H. & Friedrich, L.K. (1992). Television content and young children's behaviour. In J.P. Murray, E.A. Rubinstein & G.A. Comstock (Eds.) Television and social behaviour (vol. 2), Television and social learning (pp. 202-317). Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

Surgeon General's Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behaviour (1972). Television and growing up: The impact of televised violence. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

Turner, C.W. & Berkowitz, L. (1972). Identification with film aggressor [covert role taking] and reactions to film violence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 21 (2), 256-264.

United States Congress. House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce (1952). Investigation of Radio and Television Programs, Hearings and Report, 82nd Congress, 2nd session, June 3-December 5, 1952. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

United States Congress, Senate Committee of the Judiciary, Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency (1955a). Juvenile Delinquency (Television Programs), Hearings, 83rd Congress, 2nd session, June 5- October 20, 1954. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

United States Congress, Senate Committee of the Judiciary, Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency (1955b). Juvenile Delinquency (Television Programs), Hearings, 84th Congress, 1st session, April 6-7, 1955. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

United States Congress, Senate Committee of the Judiciary, Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency (1965a). Effects on young people of violence and crime portrayed on television. Hearings, 87th Congress, 1st and 2nd sessions, June 8, 1961-May 14, 1962. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

United States Congress, Senate Committee of the Judiciary, Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency (1965b). Effects on young people of violence and crime portrayed on television. Hearings, 88th Congress, 2nd session, July 30, 1964. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

United States Congress, Senate Committee of the Judiciary, Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency (1966). Effects on young people of violence and crime portrayed on television. 88th Congress, 2nd session, and 89th Congress, 1st session, October 15, 1965. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

Williams, T.M. (1986). The impact of television: A natural experiment in three communities. New York: Academic Press.

Wilson, B.J., Linz, D., & Randall, B. (1990). Applying social science research to film ratings: A shift from offensive to harmful effects. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 34, 443-468.

Wood, W., Wong, F.Y., & Chachere, J.G. (1991). Effects of media violence on viewers' aggression in unconstrained social interaction." Psychological Bulletin, 109(3), 371-383.

Worchel, S., Hardy, T.W., & Hurley, R. (1976). The effects of commercial interruption of violent and non-violent films on viewer's subsequent aggressiveness. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,12 (2), 220-232.

Zillman, D. (1971). Excitation transfer in communication-mediated aggressive behaviour. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 7, 419-434.

JOHN P. MURRAY John P. Murray, Ph.D. is Professor and Director of the School of Family Studies and Human Services at Kansas State University. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and recent President of its Division of Child Youth and Family Services. Dr. Murray's interest in television and society is reflected in nearly 30 years of research, teaching and public policy concerning children, youth and families including recent service on the Advisory Board of Mediascope, a Los Angeles-based organisation working to reduce the effects of media violence. In the late 1960's and early 70's, Dr. Murray served as Research Co-ordinator for the Surgeon General's Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behaviour at the National Institute of Mental Health resulting in the landmark Surgeon General's report on television violence in 1972. Subsequently, he taught in the School of Behavioural Sciences at Macquarie University in Sydney where he conducted research on the effects of the introduction of television in the Australian "outback." His concern about the impact of television has continued during appointments at the University of Michigan, the Boys Town Centre for the Study of Youth Development, and Kansas State University. Over the years, Dr. Murray has produced 10 books and more than 80 articles on children's television, including his 1992 book, "Big World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society" (University of Nebraska Press).

Sign Up for our Newsletter